Asal – Usil (“Asal-Usil” ini merupakan usilan / sorotan atas artikel “Islam dan Nasionalisme”)

nasionalismeislamMerujuk pada pemikiran Bung Sjahrir (salah seorang founding fathers  Republik Indonesia) tentang nasionalisme, maka nasionalisme yang dimaksud oleh penulis artikel di atas (“Islam dan Nasionalisme” — Bagian Pertama), yakni Dr Ali Muhammad Naqavi, dapat disebut sebagai nasionalisme yang agresif, ekspansif, dan imperialistik. Bahkan ia dijadikan sebagai doktrin kekuasaan dan pemaksaan kehendak nasional terhadap bangsa-bangsa yang lebih lemah.

Tetapi, bukankah nasionalisme negara-negara bekas jajahan di Asia dan Afrika lebih tepat disebut sebagai nasionalisme progressif, yakni nasionalisme yang memperjuangkan demokrasi di bidang politik dan keadilan sosial di bidang ekonomi? Bukankah nasionalisme seperti ini dapat diidentifisir sebagai perjuangan kemerdekaan dari rakyat yang terjajah (tertindas / mustadh’afin)? Bukankah substansi nasionalisme progressif itu adalah perjuangan kemerdekaan yang juga sangat dianjurkan oleh agama [lihat Al-Qur’an Surah (QS) 90 : 13 dan QS 28 : 5]? Dengan begitu, betapa luhurnya ucapan Mahatma Gandhi: “My nationalism is humanity”, yang juga sering dikutip oleh Bung Karno. Bukankah Bung Karno telah menawarkan suatu “nasionalisme yang tumbuh subur dalam tamansari perikemanusiaan”?

***

DARI perspektif Islam, etika (akhlaq) — yang mendasari humanisme itu — bukan dianggap sekadar suku cadang hukum, tetapi sebagai pemekaran “kebenaran” dalam jiwa manusia. Dengan kata lain, etika humanisme bukan metode atau instrumen untuk menjalankan hukum belaka. Dalam kaitan ini menarik dikemukakan pertanyaan: “Apakah manusia — setelah berjuang atas nama kemanusiaan atau kemerdekaan — hanya cukup puas menepuk dada bahwa inilah manusia dan kemudian bersiap dipuruk dalam kegelapan tanah”?

Bagaimanapun, konsep humanisme atau hak-hak asasi menurut Islam tidak sepenuhnya sama dengan yang dirumuskan Barat. Islam memandang bahwa Hak Asasi Manusia (HAM) — dan juga demokrasi — tidak bisa dilepaskan dari aspek teologi. Misalnya, dalam soal kepemilikan. Barat berpendapat bahwa segala sesuatu di alam semesta ini adalah milik manusia (individu atau sekelompok orang). Sedangkan Islam meyakini bahwa “segala yang ada di alam semesta ini (baik lahir maupun batin) adalah milik Allah SWT” (QS 20 : 6 dan QS 30 : 26). Dengan kata lain, manusia hanya diamanati untuk mengelola milik Allah itu (QS 2 : 30; QS 5 : 48; dan QS 38 : 26) dan memakmurkannya (QS 11 : 61) untuk kemanfaatan manusia itu sendiri (QS 34 : 18 – 19 dan QS 29 : 6).

Sebagai agent of development, hamba Allah (abdillah) tidak akan mengeksplorasi alam tanpa kendali. Dia, misalnya, tidak akan mereklamasi pantai atau menambang pasir laut secara egois (tidak terkendali) yang akan merusak ekosistem; atau juga melakukan penggundulan hutan (QS 2 : 205) hanya semata untuk mengejar pertumbuhan ekonomi. Singkatnya, dia tidak akan melanggar ketentuan Allah (sunnatullah), baik yang tertulis maupun tidak tertulis (hukum alam). Dalam dirinya tidak ada ruang bagi pelindung-pelindung selain Allah SWT karena dia yakin bahwa pelindung-pelindung seperti itu bagaikan rumah laba-laba yang kontruksinya sangat lemah (QS 29 : 41).

Dengan konsekuensi yang diperluas, dia tidak akan pernah merasa rendah diri (inferiority complex) — apalagi frustrasi — menyaksikan merebaknya kecongkakan jaringan ideologi neoliberalisme atau globalisasi yang disponsori dan dimandori oleh Amerika Serikat sebab ia yakin — tentu saja dengan didasari analisis keilmuan yang sahih — jaringan tersebut akan rontok cukup dengan proses pembusukan dari dalam dirinya sendiri.

***

JIKA nasionalisme merupakan paham yang luhur dan memiliki akar historis yang kokoh, pastilah ia memiliki rumusan tegas. Masalahnya, mengapa nasionalisme di Dunia Ketiga (sebuah istilah yang masih bisa kita perdebatkan) menderita benjol-benjol memar dihantam palu godam budaya kapitalisme global (neoliberalisme atau totaliterisme pasar)? Sebagai tubuh yang sempurna, apakah ia tidak memiliki antibody untuk menangkal racun-racun neoimperialisme itu? Lalu, mengapa pula ia acap dimanipulasi sebagai alat untuk melestarikan kekuasaan (status quo)? Benarkah adagium “right or wrong is my country” adalah turunan sah dari nasionalisme? Bagaimana mensinkronkan adagium tersebut dengan ajaran Islam yang mengajarkan “kebenaran datangnya dari Allah SWT” (QS 3 : 60) dan “kezaliman” atau “kerusakan” pasti diakibatkan oleh perbuatan manusia (QS 10 : 44 dan QS 30 : 41), dan oleh karenanya setiap Muslim perlu berlaku adil meskipun terhadap dirinya sendiri (QS 5 : 8), di samping menyampaikan kebenaran (dengan strategi tertentu) walaupun pahit (Al Hadits)?

Bagaimana pula kita menanggapi pandangan Benedict Anderson, bahwa “pada mulanya nasionalisme adalah budaya yang dibangun dari tradisi perkawanan yang tumbuh subur dalam kehidupan komunitas desa dan suku-suku. Budaya ini kemudian menjadi komoditas politik dan berubah menjadi wacana absolut tatkala diambil alih oleh negara (bangsa)”? [Imagined Communities (2001)]. Atau pendapat Michel Foucault, tokoh postmodernisme, bahwa “nasionalisme sebagai warisan abadi itu tidak ada. Yang ada tak lain adalah the dissension of others (pertikaian orang lain)”?

Kemudian, benarkah nasionalisme yang dirumuskan oleh Prof Mohammad Yamin tidak didasarkan pada ulasan sejarah yang empiris, tapi sekadar memenuhi tuntutan akan persatuan untuk melawan kolonialisme, meskipun itu sangat ampuh dalam mengorganisasikan perlawanan? Patutkah rumusan Prof Yamin itu dicarikan pembenarannya dalam Islam, misalnya dengan menggunakan kaidah fiqh : “Jika suatu kewajiban hanya dapat ditunaikan dengan menggunakan sarana sesuatu yang lain, maka penggunaan sesuatu yang lain itu menjadi wajib”, sehingga kemudian kita kembangkan menjadi suatu semangat pendorong bahwa nasionalisme bisa digunakan sebagai instrumen untuk melawan kolonialisme (neokolonialisme), dan karenanya pemanfaatan jargon nasionalisme itu menjadi wajib hukumnya? Tapi, betulkah nasionalisme merupakan satu-satunya instrumen ampuh untuk melawan kolonialisme (imperialisme atau neoimperialisme)? Jika betul, maka tesis Foucault di atas menjadi rontok. Tapi, jika jawabannya: “tidak betul”, maka setidaknya nasionalisme harus direlakan untuk dimekarkan ke arah internasionalisme agar tidak jumud dan eksklusif. Masalahnya, bagaimana jika internasionalisme itu tidak menjurus kepada konvergensi atau simbiosis mutualistik, seperti yang dimaksudkan dalam ayat Al-Qur’an (lihat QS 49 : 13): “Hai manusia, sesungguhnya Kami menciptakan kamu dari seorang laki-laki dan seorang perempuan dan menjadikan kamu berbangsa-bangsa (mungkin bisa diterjemahkan: beraneka corak nasionalisme) dan bersuku-suku supaya kamu saling kenal mengenal (mungkin bisa diterjemahkan: bersimbiosis mutualistis secara adil untuk membangun sesuatu yang konstruktif)”?

Bagi Indonesia, bagaimana konkretnya agar kebebasan gerak ke arah internasionalisme itu tidak terjebak pada liberalisme (neoliberalisme), tapi tetap harus berpijak pada sikap kegotongroyongan bersama? Dan, jangan lupa, bagaimana menetapkan prinsip kegotongroyongan yang berkeadilan (QS 16 : 90)?  Atau, bisa saja kegotongroyongan itu tidak memiliki prinsip yang kokoh dan universal, mengingat hampir setiap bangsa atau komunitas memiliki corak kegotongroyongan yang berbeda-beda? Bukankah semut saja mempraktikkan gotong royong tatkala memindahkan sebutir gula pasir, misalnya? Lalu, mungkinkah keadilan universal dapat tumbuh bersama dengan spektrum kegotongroyongan yang variatif seperti itu?

Adalah wajar jika kita menolak konsepsi internasionalisme yang digagas oleh Karl Marx dan Engels, yakni suatu konsepsi yang hendak mempersatukan kelas-kelas buruh dan proletar tanpa dihambat oleh batasan nasional atau negara (the borderless world). Tetapi jika upaya pembentukan tata dunia yang berkeadilan harus ditempuh — antara lain — dengan masuk lewat forum Organisasi Perdagangan Dunia (World Trade Organization / WTO), bukankah sudah terbukti bahwa forum ini terus dikangkangi oleh kelompok negara maju, seperti Uni Eropa, Amerika Serikat, dan Jepang untuk memeras negara-negara sedang berkembang? Lalu, apa bedanya formalisasi forum seperti itu dengan legalisasi pelacuran (misalnya)?

Nah, bagaimanakah nalarnya nasionalisme agresif dan nasionalisme progressif bisa tampil bersama secara adil dalam pentas internasionalisme, seperti forum WTO itu, sementara negara-negara miskin dan berkembang kian disibukkan dengan rengekan lebih dari 815 juta penduduknya yang kelaparan (data tahun 2004).

Dengan format (landscape) seperti itu masih relefankah kita mempercayai jargon Millennium Development Goals / MDGs, di mana salah satu butir (dari delapan butir) tujuannya adalah “menanggulangi kemiskinan dan kelaparan”. [**]

______________________

”Asal-Usil” ini dikerjakan oleh La Ode Zulfikar Toresano (Aba Zul), Koordinator Umum Forum Studi Politik dan Teknologi Nasional  (Forum SPTN)  dan Pemimpin Redaksi  BUTONet 2.

Pernah dimuat dalam  Jurnal  ISLAM  LiBeRaL?  edisi Juni 2004

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