BIOGRAFI RINGKAS – Syahid Ayatullah Prof Murtadha Mutahhari (Pembangkit Kebangunan Intelektual Islam)

Myulianaindriastuti.wordpress.comurtadha Mutahhari lahir pada tanggal 2 Februari 1919 di Fariman, Provinsi Khurasan, Iran.  Ayahnya, Hujjatul Islam Muhammad Husein Mutahhari, adalah seorang Muslim yang saleh.

Pada usia 12 tahun, Mutahhari memasuki Pusat Keagamaan di Masyhad dan di sana ia  mengikuti pelajaran dari Mirza Mehdi Shahidi Razavi.  Kemudian, ia melanjutkan pendidikannya di Qum untuk belajar pada Ayatullah Borujerdi dan Imam Khomeini.  Selain itu, perkenalannya — yang beruntung — dengan Haji Mirza Ali Agha Syirazi juga sangat memengaruhi pemikirannya.

Selama masa studinya, Mutahhari mengembangkan perhatian yang mendalam pada falsafah dan pengetahuan-pengetahuan modern. Ia mengenali konsep-konsep dan berbagai aliran filsafat sejak perkembangan intelektualnya.  Ia pun melibatkan diri dalam kelompok Fedaiyin Islam, dan ini menunjukkan komitmennya yang tinggi di bidang (pergerakan) politik.

Tahun 1952 ia mendirikan Dewan Islam untuk mahasiswa-mahasiswa di Teheran. Dan pada tahun 1955, Mutahhari mulai mengajar sebagai mahaguru pada Sekolah Tinggi Agama — untuk tingkat doktoral.  Ini dijalaninya hingga tahun 1978.

Sebagai seorang Muslim yang taat, Mutahhari senantiasa memiliki komitmen tinggi di bidang sosial-politik.  Akibatnya, pada tahun 1963, ia ditahan bersama Imam Khomeini.  Dan setelah Imam Khomeini diasingkan ke Turki, ia mengambil peran aktif dalam kepemimpinan gerakan kebebasan Islam dengan memberikan kontribusi besar dan menentukan dalam memobilisasi para ulama mujahidin.

Sebagai pembangkit kebangunan intelektual Islam, Mutahhari dengan setia bahu-membahu mendirikan “Husainiyah Irsyad”.  Pada tahun 1969 — bersama-sama Ayatullah Zanjani dan Allamah Tabataba’i — Mutahhari mengeluarkan satu pernyataan keras mengutuk agresi ganas pemerintah imperialis Amerika Serikat (AS) terhadap Palestina.  Terkait dengan ini, ia giat mengumpulkan dana yang sangat dibutuhkan para pengungsi Palestina.

Sementara itu, pada tahun 1971, Mutahhari mengemban tanggung jawab yang menentukan dalam rencana-rencana politik ideologi Masjid Al-Javad.  Ia pun selalu meminta nasehat dari Imam Khomeini  terkait dengan masalah-masalah sosial politik yang penting.  Dan di situ ia banyak mendapatkan inspirasi tentang konsep dan garis-garis besar bimbingan pergerakan (dari Imam).

Pada tahun 1972 aktifitas-aktifitas intelektual di pusat-pusat kebudayaan Islam (terutama di Husainiyah Irsyad dan Masjid al-Javad) dilarang oleh rezim despotik Syah Iran, yang disusul dengan penahanan Prof Mutahhari untuk kedua kalinya.

Segera setelah dibebaskan dari penjara, Mutahhari melanjutkan aktifitas politiknya, dan pada tahun 1978, ia mendapatkan khabar pembuangan (pengasingan) Ayatullah Montazeri.  Sehubungan dengan itu, Mutahhari melancarkan penentangan antara lain melalui pidato.  Mulai saat itulah rezim Syah Iran melarang semua kegiatan kuliah dan khotbahnya.

Pada babakan selanjutnya, Mutahhari mendapatkan tugas dari Imam Khomeini untuk mengorganisir Masyarakat Ulama Mujahidin dan menjadi anggota Dewan Revolusi.  Dan di saat memuncaknya Revolusi Islam, Prof Mutahhari menjadi Asisten Imam Khomeini.

Kejeniusan dan kesetiaannya — termasuk kepribadiannya yang luhur — begitu menyatu dalam dirinya yang mengantarkannya kepada kesyahidan.  Dari sekian banyak sumbangannya yang penting di antaranya adalah perjuangan melawan materialisme yang diimpor dari Barat.  Ia berusaha keras agar setiap orang dapat mengamalkan ajaran Islam.  Dan untuk itu ia pun banyak menulis buku.

***

PADA tanggal 2 Mei 1979, radio mengumumkan syahidnya Prof Mutahhari yang diiringi dengan bacaan dari petikan-petikan dalam buku beliau, “Sastan Rastan”. [**]

________________________

Dikutib dan diedit  oleh  BUTONet 2  dari Majalah  Yaum al-Quds.

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