Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, Politik Perberasan, Kedaulatan Pangan, dan Cargo Cult Mentality

Shttp://www.spi.or.id/alah satu efek neoliberalisme — yang antara lain berlindung di balik tameng globalisasi dan pluralisme (harap dibedakan dari “pluralitas” atau “realitas plural”) — adalah munculnya kebudayaan menunggu bantuan tanpa berusaha (cargo cult mentality / CCM). Pada sebuah perusahaan (besar), misalnya, CCM ini bisa saja sengaja diciptakan dalam sosok corporate social responsibility / CSR (tanggung jawab sosial perusahaan) untuk menutupi praktik ketimpangan distribusi perolehan perusahaan atau praktik perusakan lingkungan hidup, sekaligus sebagai instrumen peredam gejolak buruh atau komunitas lokal.

Kita  juga melihat bahwa CSR berpeluang untuk dimanfaatkan sebagai katup penyumbat (plug valve) banjir aksi buruh sebagai akibat dari disparitas antara “nilai-nilai seragam” (homogeneous corporate culture) — yang dipaksakan secara halus dan rasional oleh perusahaan — dengan “pluralitas kodrati” yang melekat pada diri setiap buruh (dan juga komunitas lokal).

Sementara itu, pada sebuah tatanan sosial atau negara, CCM bisa saja dirancang untuk menarik simpati rakyat, menjaga kestabilan sosial, dan untuk menghindari proses pematangan kondisi obyektif yang merupakan salah satu pemicu gejolak sosial. Maka, mudah ditebak, alih-alih menciptakan pemberdayaan, CCM malah dituding sebagai salah satu bentuk politik pembodohan atau politik peninabobokan rakyat. Dalam kaitan ini, apakah pengucuran “raskin” (beras miskin) dan pembagian kompor gas gratis kepada kelompok masyarakat marjinal dapat dipandang sebagai wujud pelestarian dari CCM itu? Jawabannya silahkan simpan di kantong masing-masing!

***

DI antara tumpukan “Laporan Kunjungan Kerja” (Laporan Kunker) anggota DPD (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah) adalah tentang “ketahanan pangan”. Istilah ini terkesan “defensif pasif”, dan ternyata ketahanan yang dimaksud adalah kemampuan untuk menahan serbuan beras impor yang didatangkan oleh Pemerintah Pusat (Bulog) dalam jumlah besar.  Jangan heran bila beberapa daerah pernah menolak impor beras itu.

Tapi, jika alasan penolakan impor beras adalah, antara lain, untuk melindungi kepentingan jangka panjang para petani, bukankah produksi beras sangat bergantung pada kualitas dan harga benih padi, kualitas dan harga pupuk, ketersediaan infrastruktur seperti irigasi dan kemudahan akses ke pasar, ketersediaan lahan dan kondisi tanah persawahan, keunggulan sarana-sarana produksi, dukungan manajemen dan teknologi, dan juga dukungan kebijakan politik ekonomi, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan perberasan (politik perberasan)? Adakah keunggulan Indonesia dalam semua faktor-faktor di atas dibandingkan dengan China, Vietnam, Thailand, dan India yang notabene diproyeksikan sebagai negara-negara sumber impor beras kita?

Dari “Laporan Kunker” tentang ketahanan pangan itu, adakah kontribusi unggul dari para anggota DPD, minimal unggul dalam mencarikan jalan keluar (way out) atas semua faktor-faktor yang disebutkan di atas? Bila tidak ada, bukankah sebaiknya DPD mengusung jargon “Kedaulatan Pangan” dan memperjuangkannya secara serius, sehingga bisa memberdayakan masyarakat daerah? Tentu saja jargon “Kedaulatan Pangan” lebih dinamis dari “Ketahanan Pangan”, dan di dalamnya minimal terkandung semangat “defensif aktif” (untuk tidak menyebut “revolusioner” karena — akibat keterbatasan penalaran ilmiah — masih banyak orang yang alergi dengan istilah ini).

Oleh karena itu, tugas selanjutnya para anggota DPD adalah mengidentifikasi jenis pangan lokal untuk kemudian diperjuangkan hingga berdaulat sebagai komoditas pangan utama masyarakat lokal. Bukankah sudah cukup banyak ragam sains dan teknologi yang bisa dipakai untuk menciptakan peningkatan kualitas produk-produk pangan lokal?

Bila politik pangan dan kedaulatan pangan itu terkait erat dengan demokrasi dan hak-hak asasi manusia (HAM), seharusnya DPD serius memperjuangkannya agar rakyat berani berinisiatif menentukan sendiri apakah mereka harus terus menerima kebijakan impor beras atau mulai membangun kedaulatan pangan lokal dengan memberikan muatan teknologi modern (modern technological content).

Dalam konteks ini, interdependence theory yang dibangga-banggakan para ekonom berotak neoliberal patut kita bacakan tahlil  hingga 7 malam berturut-turut agar arwah teori tersebut tidak bergentayangan mengganggu para anggota DPD yang hendak memperjuangkan “Kedaulatan Pangan” (dan juga tidak mengganggu rakyat kita yang masih menahan rasa sakit perut karena keroncongan).

***

DALAM sebuah diskusi — tentang kebijakan perberasan — di salah satu stasiun TV (pekan lalu), seorang ekonom berteori kira-kira seperti ini: Dalam era perdagangan bebas saat ini, perdagangan komoditas lebih efisien bila diserahkan pada mekanisme pasar, dan bahwa kegiatan ekspor-impor itu merupakan keniscayaan. “Apa salahnya kita terus mengimpor beras kalau itu mengandung efisiensi ekonomi?” gugat ekonom itu. Dengan mengutip pendapat Amartya Sen (peraih Nobel bidang ekonomi), ia melanjutkan, Malaysia saja lebih memilih mengimpor kebutuhan pangannya, dan lebih fokus membudidayakan beberapa komoditas unggulan, seperti kelapa sawit.

Terhadap ekonom yang berotak encer seperti air kolak itu, kita  hanya mau bilang, justru akibat politik perberasan yang diterapkan selama pemerintahan Orde Baru, beras menjelma dengan gentayangan menjadi pangan nasional yang menempatkan pangan lokal dalam posisi inferior. Sosialisasi penanaman beras itu semakin efektif ketika dikaitkan dengan program transmigrasi (dari Pulau Jawa). Itu berarti, jika keran impor dibuka deras, dalam jangka panjang akan melemahkan kekuatan ekonomi petani beras di seluruh Nusantara (termasuk para pengusaha dan pekerja yang terkait dengan sektor usaha perberasan) karena belum ada strategi pembangunan ekonomi nasional yang mampu membuat mereka bisa berkompetisi dalam semua aspek yang terkait dengan produksi beras seperti dikemukakan di depan. Parahnya lagi, hingga kini kita tidak punya strategi alternatif, misalnya strategi “Kedaulatan Pangan”.

Jika alternatifnya pemerintah harus turun tangan dengan melakukan optimalisasi produksi beras nasional (seraya terus memperkecil impor beras), bisakah kita menandingi strategi produksi beras massal yang diterapkan oleh China, Vietnam, Thailand, dan India, yang telah mengakibatkan murahnya harga produk (komoditas) beras mereka? Jika beras mereka dijual dengan harga yang lebih murah, mengapa kita harus ngotot berkutat untuk memproduksi beras? Bukankah rasionalitas ekonomi akan meminggirkan jargon-jargon nasionalisme sempit dan kecintaan semu pada produk-produk atau komoditas dalam negeri?

Dengan hanya beras yang dijadikan sebagai pangan primer (makanan pokok), bukankah akan mudah mendapatkan serangan dari politik dagang China, India, Thailand, dan Vietnam? Dan jika pangan dijadikan sebagai sasaran empuk peluru-peluru politik ekonomi (karena terlalu naif jika dianggap bahwa trading practices pasti steril dari intrik politik), maka bukankah lebih baik sasarannya dipecah dengan mewujudkan sosok-sosok beragam berupa aneka komoditas /produk pangan lokal yang murah, enak, dan bermutu? Dengan demikian, interdependence  yang fair  baru akan terjadi setelah ada optimalisasi potensi pangan khas masing-masing daerah.

Dengan keragaman pangan lokal (yang berdaulat) itu, bagaimana nalarnya politik perberasan China, India, Thailand, dan Vietnam bisa mengacak-ngacak pasar di berbagai daerah di seluruh Nusantara? Bukankah mereka akan menguras sumber daya yang banyak untuk bisa menjebol tembok kedaulatan pangan yang memagari setiap daerah di seluruh Nusantara?

Bukankah dengan strategi di atas, selain menciptakan “Kedaulatan Pangan”, kita juga bisa mencegah kemungkinan dijadikannya beras sebagai senjata politik (politik-ekonomi), di samping untuk menghindari peluang digunakannya teknologi transgenik atau rekayasa genetika (bioteknologi) — yang terbukti merusak kesehatan — dalam komoditas pangan (yang kita konsumsi), atau bahkan kemungkinan mencegah parktik-praktik bio-terorisme? Seharusnya para ekonom pro-neolib itu juga memikirkan alternatif tentang dampak sampingan yang merugikan rakyat sebagai akibat dari impor komoditas primer (beras), seperti yang terakhir diungkapkan di atas. Bravo buat DPD-RI. [**]

_______________

La Ode Zulfikar Toresano   (Aba Zul) adalah  Koordinator Umum Forum Studi Politik dan Teknologi Nasional  (Forum SPTN) dan sejak Maret 2014 belajar mengabdikan diri sebagai  Pemimpin Redaksi  BUTONet 2.

Artikel ini pernah dimuat dalam Jurnal DPD Plus Digital  Nomor 4 / Tahun Ke-1, 27 Desember 2006  dan Jurnal Parlemen Online (Jurnal ParlemenO) / 2007.

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