Ginandjar dan Pembubaran Dewan Perwakilan Daerah?

http//www/mpr.go.id“Untuk apa mempertahankan sistem yang mahal tetapi tidak efektif?” kata Ketua Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD) Ginandjar Kartasasmita (Kompas, 5 / 1 / 2007). Sistem yang dimaksud adalah sistem bikameral, yakni sistem dua kamar dalam lembaga legislatif kita: DPR (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat) dan DPD. Berdasarkan konstitusi — yang telah mengalami empat kali amandamen — kewenangan DPD masih sangat terbatas, terutama menyangkut pembuatan dan pengesahan undang-undang (UU).

Sehingga sistem bikameral seperti itu lebih layak disebut soft bicameral.  Ketimpangan inilah yang kemudian antara lain menimbulkan tuntutan: Kalau memang sistem bikameral tidak bisa dipertegas mungkin bisa dipertimbangkan untuk kembali saja ke sistem unikameral dengan DPR sebagai satu-satunya lembaga legislatif, dan DPD lebih baik dibubarkan saja.

Jika dipertegas lagi itu berarti sudah saatnya diputuskan pilihan untuk meneruskan sistem dua kamar (bikameral) seperti saat ini atau kembali ke sistem satu kamar (unikameral).

Tuntutan yang bernuansa kekecewaan itu bisa dimaklumi mengingat DPD diposisikan sebagai pesakitan yang mengalami kemandulan fungsional, padahal lembaga ini dipilih langsung oleh rakyat melalui mekanisme pemilihan umum (Pemilu). Lagipula, berpijak pada Pasal 2 Ayat (1) Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 (UUD 1945) hasil amandemen, secara tegas dinyatakan bahwa kedudukan DPD bersama DPR adalah sebagai bagian dari MPR (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat). Artinya, secara kelembagaan, posisi DPD seimbang dengan DPR (juga lihat Pasal 40 UU Nomor 22 Tahun 2003 tentang Susunan Kedudukan MPR, DPR, DPD, dan DPRD).

Atas dasar itu besar kemungkinan perlambatan pembangunan demokrasi — dan pemerataan sumber daya pusat dan daerah — selama ini antara lain berhulu dari ketimpangan tersebut.

***

DALAM wacana Analisis Konflik ada tiga pendekatan yang bisa digunakan. PertamaAdversarial, yakni pendekatan yang melihat konflik (baca: kemacetan komunikasi politik) sebagai “kita lawan mereka”, “kalah atau menang”, “semua atau tidak sama sekali”.  KeduaReflektif, yakni melihat ke dalam, mengintrospeksi, dan merefleksikan kerugian atau kegagalan-kegagalan yang telah ditimbulkan oleh konflik dan mempertimbangkan hal terbaik untuk mencapai tujuan yang sebenarnya. KetigaIntegratif, yakni melihat ke dalam diri sendiri atau institusi (inward looking) dan juga kebutuhan untuk memahami pandangan lawan atau mitra dialog (outward looking).

Tampaknya, ke-ngambek-an (kekesalan)  Ginandjar lebih mencerminkan penggunaaan pendekatan pertama dalam upaya menyodok ketersumbatan peran DPD. Tentu saja pendekatan seperti itu kurang inovatif dan terkesan DPD miskin kreatifitas dan malas atau takut berpikir (phronemophobia), bahkan kalau dipaksakan dapat menimbulkan ketidakteraturan (ataxophobia) dalam membangun demokrasi di negeri ini. Mengapa demikian? Realitas politik yang menunjukkan masih kuatnya resistensi dari kalangan politisi yang kini duduk di DPR — terkait dengan penguatan peran DPD — patut dijadikan pertimbangan. Apalagi pilihan untuk memperkuat sistem bikameral (dari soft bicameral menjadi strong bicameral) atau kembali pada sistem unikameral itu mau-tidak-mau berujung pada amandemen konstitusi (amandemen kelima UUD 1945).

Kendati seluruh anggota DPD telah mengajukan usul perubahan UUD 1945, namun dengan jumlah anggota yang hanya 128 belum memenuhi syarat minimal pengambilan keputusan di MPR.

Sementara itu, meski — akhir-akhir ini — usul amandemen UUD 1945 marak dikumandangkan kalangan peneliti atau akademisi, namun resistensi dari kelompok-kelompok politik tertentu pun tidak kalah nyaringnya. Gerakan Revolusi Nurani (yang deklaratornya adalah Tyasno Sudarto, mantan Kepala Staf TNI Angkatan Darat), misalnya, menganggap perubahan UUD 1945 tidak sah (Kompas, 4 / 1 / 2007).

***

JIKA DPD mau belajar dari Hukum Mekanika Newton I (Hukum Newton I) tentang kelembaman, dan juga rendah hati merenungkan salah satu karakter dasar air yang — dalam gerak mengalirnya — tidak memaksakan diri (ngotot) membentur batu cadas, maka mulai saat ini setiap anggota DPD perlu merekonstruksi kemudian mengaktifkan sistem komunikasi politik dan gagasan serta tindakan pemberdayaan [yang unsur-unsurnya adalah: (1) mutual respect; (2) mutual engangement; (3) mutual benefit; dan (4) mutual reassurance / reinvestment] kepada konstituen mereka di seluruh Nusantara. (Indonesia).

Ditinjau dari ilmu thermodinamika-psikologi-sosial-politik (sains TPSP), jika semua persyaratan membangun komunikasi itu dipenuhi, komponen-komponen masyarakat itulah yang kelak akan mendesakkan dukungan perubahan terhadap UUD 1945 dan UU Nomor 22 Tahun 2003, sehingga fungsi dan kewenangan DPD bisa optimal dan mempunyai kedudukan yang seimbang dengan DPR.

Tentang ilmu TPSP, mungkin DPD perlu ikut kuliah dari Forum SPTN. Nilai SKS (Sistem Kredit Semester)-nya hanya 8 koq!!! (hehe …., hehe …., hehe ……, hus!!!).

***

KEMBALI pada isu perubahan UUD 1945, jika memungkinkan, “sebelum 2009 sudah harus diputuskan,” kata Ginandjar (Kompas, 5 / 1 / 2007). Meski kita sepakat dengan pepatah  kulon: The sooner the better (makin cepat, makin bagus), namun kita patut bertanya, bagaimana logika politiknya menjelang Pemilu 2009  koq bangsa ini dijejali lagi dengan agenda amandemen konstitusi. Atau mungkin ada resep  panacea  yang bisa menurunkan temperatur politik akibat dari gesekan bahkan benturan-benturan atau tsunami politik yang besar kemungkinan ditimbulkan oleh kelompok-kelompok kepentingan (the interest groups). Sekarang saja radar politik bangsa (dan negara) tidak mampu memantau aneka musibah pesawat-pesawat yang mengangkut aspirasi berbagai pihak. [**]

_______________

La Ode Zulfikar Toresano (Aba Zul) adalah Koordinator Umum Forum Studi Politik dan Teknologi Nasional  (Forum SPTN) dan sejak Maret 2014 belajar mengabdi sebagai Pemimpin Redaksi  BUTONet 2.

Artikel ini pernah dimuat dalam Jurnal DPD Plus Digital  Nomor 5 / Tahun Ke-1, 3 Januari 2007 dan juga  Jurnal Parlemen Online (Jurnal ParlemenO) / 2007.

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