Indonesia Sasaran Empuk Penyadapan AS dan Australia

PenyadapanWASHINGTON, MINGGU — Pada hari Sabtu lalu (15/2) kembali kita dibuat tersentak dengan pemberitaan harian The New York Times, masih soal skandal penyadapan yang dilakukan Badan Keamanan Nasional (NSA) Amerika Serikat (AS).

Dalam dokumen yang dibocorkan oleh Edward J Snowden, pekerja kontrak pada NSA, disebutkan bahwa NSA memantau setiap firma hukum AS yang bekerja mewakili negara asing dalam sengketa-sengketa perdagangan, termasuk Indonesia.

Dari dokumen yang diterima pada Februari 2013 itu  terungkap bahwa Pemerintah Indonesia memanfaatkan jasa sebuah firma hukum AS untuk menangani sengketa perdagangan dengan AS.

Dokumen tersebut juga melaporkan bahwa Direktorat Sinyal Australia (ASD)  menjadi  partner NSA. Dalam hal ini ASD menginformasikan kepada NSA bahwa mereka melakukan pemantauan komunikasi, termasuk terhadap pejabat Indonesia yang menjalin hubungan dengan firma hukum di AS; dan di sana juga tertera kesediaan ASD untuk berbagi informasi kepada NSA.

Biro hukum AS yang tersadap tidak diberikan identifikasinya dalam laporan bulanan ASD itu. Namun, diketahui bahwa biro Mayer Brown mewakili Pemerintah Indonesia dalam  sengketa  perdagangan di AS.

NSA menolak menjawab pertanyaan soal laporan penyadapan atas firma/biro  hukum tersebut. Sementara, Duane Layton, pengacara dari firma Mayer Brown, mengatakan, ia tak punya bukti bahwa ia atau perusahaannya telah disadap oleh Australia ataupun AS.

“(Namun) saya selalu bertanya-tanya apakah ada yang mendengarkan pembicaraan kami, karena Anda naif bila tidak mempertanyakan hal demikian. Tapi saya tidak pernah berpikir bahwa saya sedang dimata-matai,” ujar Layton yang tugasnya adalah  menangani isu atau sengketa perdagangan internasional pada biro hukum tersebut.

Sementara itu, pemerintah Australia bersikeras menolak berkomentar soal  penyadapan mereka terhadap Indonesia, seperti dilansir ZDNet pada hari Minggu kemarin (16/2). “Kami tidak akan mengomentari masalah operasi intelijen,” jawab Perdana Menteri Australia Tony Abbott saat ditanya masalah ini.  Ketika ditemui di Bourke, New South Wales, Abbot hanya mengatakan bahwa  penyadapan tidak bermaksud untuk merugikan negara lain.

Ini senada dengan pernyataan AS, bahwa penyadapan yang mereka lakukan hanya untuk mencegah tindak terorisme dan ancaman atas keamanan negara.

Namun, bocoran Snowden yang diulas secara mendetail di New York Times  mengungkapkan bahwa penyadapan ASD dan NSA tidak sepenuhnya untuk alasan keamanan. Dalam dokumen (2013) ini, intelijen kedua negara tersebut justru menyadap percakapan negosiasi sengketa dagang antara Indonesia dan AS,  yang tidak memiliki korelasi langsung dengan masalah keamanan atau terorisme.

Dalam bocoran itu disebutkan, ASD meminta arahan dan restu dari NSA untuk menyadap percakapan firma (hukum) AS yang bekerja untuk kepentingan Indonesia dalam menyelesaikan sengketa dagang rokok kretek dan udang pada tahun 2010.

Selain itu Snowden juga membeberkan bahwa Indonesia menjadi target intelijen  Australia sejak peristiwa Bom Bali 2002, yang menewaskan 202 orang  termasuk 88 turis Australia. Negara lainnya yang disasar ASD adalah Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Timor Leste, dan Papua Nugini

China juga menjadi sasaran utama penyadapan AS, mengingat negeri tirai bambu itu merupakan salah satu negara terkuat di Asia, baik secara ekonomi maupun pertahanan. Disebutkan, NSA sangat khawatir jika hasil sadapannya terhadap China dibocorkan Snowden.

Kerjasama intelijen kedua negara yang tergabung dalam FiveEyes (FVEY) — yang separuh personelnya merupakan agen NSA — itu umumnya difokuskan untuk menyadap negara-negara di Asia. Sasaran utamanya adalah Indonesia dan China. Untuk Indonesia, Brisbane Times dan Canberra Times  melaporan bahwa NSA menyerahkan tugas penyadapan kepada ASD. Dalam hal ini sejumlah data Indosat — salah satu provider telekomunikasi (di Indonesia) — menjadi targetnya, khususnya terkait dengan penyadapan komunikasi pelanggan operator selular tersebut, termasuk juga penyadapan sejumlah pejabat di kementerian (Republik Indoneia).

Laporan yang dibocorkan Snowden itu merupakan dokumen badan intelijen AS, National Security Agency (NSA), yang diberikannya kepada New York Times/NYT  pada 15 Februari dan dipublikasika pada hari Minggu (16/2). “NSA dan biro intelijen Australia Signals Directorate (ASD) membangun fasilitas intelijen di Alice Spring, Australia,” demikian NYT memberitakan.

Dalam bocoran itu, NSA juga disebut telah menyerahkan sekitar 1,8 juta kunci enskripsi induk yang digunakan operator selular Telkomsel dalam melindungi percakapan pribadi pelanggannya. Intelijen Australia (ASD) juga membongkar seluruh enskripsi Telkomsel.  Berdasarkan data, pada tahun 2012, Telkomsel  memiliki 212 juta pelanggan (62 persen dari pangsa pasar). (Wa Ode Zainab Z Toresano : The New York Times/ Islam Times/ Brisbane Times/ Canberra Times)

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  35. Common medicines are just the exact same in high quality and reliable, as long as you purchase them from a relied on drug store that has all the experience it takes. If you are an expecting or breastfeeding woman and you believe you require to start taking Tadalafil due to whatever reason, first discuss it with a qualified professional to see if the perks surpass potential dangers. Primarily, you are free of charge to purchase any type of quantities of Tadalafil paying just a fraction of the price you would certainly need to pay if you were going with the trademark name kind, and in addition you could likewise get free of cost shipping to any kind of region of your choice and sufficient various other advantages. This is necessary to make certain the person actually needs this type of therapy, as oftentimes the inability of a man to carry out sexually is induced by mental factors and various other remedies could be used. If you ever before have a heart problem and report it to some medical professional or your neighborhood emergency clinic, make certain the physicians know exactly what medicine you are taking to make sure Tadalafil 5mg Price India does not meddle with some of the drugs you may be given. If you are taking Tadalafil for day-to-day usage you could have sex anytime in between the 2 amounts. See to it you also tell your healthcare company concerning various other health disorders that might hamper the effectiveness of your procedure.

  36. Taking Tadalafil with nitrates and alpha blockers (terazosin, tamsulosin, alfuzosin, mesylate, prazosin, doxazosin) may lead to a quite unsafe outcome – unexpected decrease of blood pressure. Tadalafil could cause a couple of mild side impacts like flushing, drippy nose, headache, acid indigestion, stale nose, back pain or muscle aches at the start of the treatment, but those are not likely to last for too in length. The following moderate side effects do not need to be stated right away, as they are likely to disappear alone: indigestion, coughing, diarrhea, stomach pain, backache, muscular tissue pain, problem, heartburn ( pyrosis ), and flushing. For example, being over FIFTY years of ages, having higher cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pre-existing eye troubles, or high blood stress could be a threat aspects for developing unexpected vision loss – so see to it you review your personal threat factors with your doctor. There could be HIV or AIDS drugs, antifungals, nitrates for chest discomfort, alpha blockers, erythromycin and blood stress medicines, and you will be supposed to report those to your medical professional to ensure no communications regarding buy tadalafil tablets 20mg are feasible.

  37. Your dose of Tadalafil might have to be adjusted correctly for you to obtain the most from it and prevent such light side impacts as stale nose, problem, flushing, acid indigestion, dripping nose, pain in the back and muscle pains. Never ever combine Tadalafil regarding nitrate based drugs. This is when you could state them to your health and wellness treatment company to see if you really need a dose modification. These signs are not likely to last for too lengthy and often tend to vanish as the procedure proceeds. tadalafil (Cialis) has actually been particularly created to deal with male impotence. If you have hypertension, higher cholesterol levels, diabetes, smoke consistently or are older than 50, the threat of developing sudden vision loss is also higher.

  38. See to it your wellness treatment carrier recognizes the reality you are presently utilizing antidepressants, tuberculosis medications, antibiotics, HIV/AIDS medications, seizure medicines, heart or blood pressure medications, or antifungals, as this truth could affect the excellence of your treatment. Tadalafil will certainly function only if the patient is sexually stimulated, although it takes a lot less time to obtain aroused when on generic tadalafil daily. Avoid taking more of Tadalafil than recommended, as this can trigger such signs as uneven heartbeat, chest pain, light-headedness, fainting, and queasiness, and you will certainly have to trying emergency situation medical aid. Your doctor will certainly have to understand if you have or made use of to have red blood cell disorder, angina, heart problem, low or high blood stress, physical defect of the penis, liver illness, bleeding condition, renal system condition, tummy lesion, heart tempo issues, or any various other disorders that might disrupt the effects of Tadalafil. Some of the medicines that can cause hazardous results when taken simultaneously regarding this medication are: alpha blockers (doxazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin, prazosin and tamsulosin), hypertension medication, ritonavir, theophylline, nitrate-based medicines, and erythromycin. Tadalafil (Cialis) is a yellow almond-shaped tablet intended for the therapy of male impotence.

  39. It’s specifically developed for guy people with erectile disorder – an incapability to get solid erections. Guy who do not have problems regarding obtaining a construction in addition to those that have actually not been prescribed this medicine are not supposed to take it. It’s essential for your medical service provider to understand exactly which drugs you are additionally taking presently. It’s quite crucial that you take tadalafil as recommended and never utilize it a lot more commonly compared to every 24 hours. Your erection will vanish as quickly as the sexual act is completed, similar to it usually does. Tadalafil (Cialis) is planned for the therapy of male impotence, also referred to as impotence.

  40. The following ones must be mentioned: chest pain, seizure, eyesight modifications, fainting, irregular heartbeat, lack of breath, swelling in your feet, ankle joints, or hands. Tadalafil 10mg Prescription adverse effects are often light and include sneezing, heat in the face, redness, pain in the back, aching neck, diarrhea, stuffy nose, neck, indigestion, muscle memory, discomfort and hassle problems, all them likely to vanish soon after you have them for the initial time.

  41. Not every drug store coincides, and you intend to make certain you have actually discovered the most effective one just. Inform your physician if you are thinking of taking other medications together with 25 mg tadalafil, for example alpha blockers, erythromycin, nefazodone, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, sertraline, antifungals, delavirdine, clarithromycin, isoniazid, efavirenz, danazol, phenobarbital, rifabutin, rifampin, cimetidine, lovastatin, metronidazole, HIV protease inhibitors, zafirlukast, diltiazem, medicines for hypertension, amiodarone, or various other erectile disorder procedures, as interactions have actually been reported.

  42. Major side results could be any one of the following: light-headedness, puffinessing in your ankles, feet, or hands, seizure, eyesight adjustments, basic buy cheap tadalafil onlineill feeling, fainting, sweating, breast pain, irregular heart beat, sudden vision reduction, abrupt hearing reduction, lack of breath, and priapism.

  43. You may be begun on the most affordable dose first and it can later be increased to see which is most ideal for you. We could assist you with it by giving you access to our info source. If you didn’t review them regarding your health and wellness treatment provider, Tadalafil can come to be less reliable or affect other drugs you are using. In instance of getting moderate negative side effects (looseness of the bowels, headache, acid indigestion or heartburn ( pyrosis ), muscular tissue pain, discomfort in the tummy, cough, and flushing) simply enjoy them to see if they get aggravating, which is extremely unlikely. It could be taken an hour prior to making love, and the dosage may depend on such problems as sickle cell anemia, renal disease, a record of a stroke or heart disease, high blood stress, current cardiovascular disease, heart tempo trouble, leukemia, chest pain, belly lesion, heart problem, hemophilia, physical defect of the penis, liver disease, reduced blood stress or multiple myeloma, all which are supposed to be discussed with a medical professional before the therapy is begun. If taken by a pregnant female, tadalafil daily is FDA maternity category B.

  44. Taking tadalafil could be connected regarding a variety of major and light adverse effects. Much more major adverse effects are likewise possible and could include feeling light-headed, fainting, sudden hearing loss, seizure, chest pain, ringing in your ears, irregular heartbeat, eyesight modifications, swelling in your ankles, feet, or hands, lack of breath, and back discomfort. Hearing loss is a seldom mentioned major negative side effects that every person should learn about. Mild negative effects such as diarrhea, warmth or redness in your face, neck, or breast, stale nose, memory problems, pain in the back, sore neck, upset tummy, muscular tissue pain, and problem are includeded to be typical and do not have to be stated to your health care service provider.

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  53. 奧列格·紹馬羅夫(Oleg Shaumarov)。諸如《 Together》,《 Eagles or Crows》,《 Beloved People》等著名歌曲的作者和作曲家。在他職業生涯的初期,他就吸引了千分之一的觀眾,現在走上了獨奏之路。在2018年,Oleg首次演唱了歌曲《我不相信》(I I Not Believe),並很快在俄羅斯電台播出。他的歌曲將吸引所有人:這位藝術家涉及許多與主題保持多年關聯的主題。值得注意的是:早期的奧列格(Oleg)參加了歌聲“ Together”的演出“ Voice”,後來為他帶來了第一場榮耀。

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  59. Pero nos paramos a pensar en lo que hace el cuerpo automáticamente, que es vivir, si, vivir; respirar, hacer la digestión, que nos crezcan las uñas, el pelo, parpadear, son algunos ejemplos de nuestro sistema nervioso automático. Las anomalías hormonales, como el aumento de prolactina (hormona producida por la glándula pituitaria anterior), el abuso de los esteroides por los físicoculturistas, demasiada o demasiado poca hormona tiroidea, y las hormonas administradas para tratar el cáncer de próstata pueden causar impotencia.

  60. Desde ahora te invito a seguir leyendo, porque lo que estás a punto de descubrir en esta presentación te ayudará a tratar tu disfunción eréctil como nunca antes – y sí – ¡obtendrás resultados sorprendentes. Afecta la capacidad del hombre de llegar a la tener una erección debido a la compresión de los vasos sanguíneos.

  61. El proceso implica el “endurecimiento” prematuro e inusualmente severo de las arterias. No es noticia para nadie lo corrosivo que pueden resultar las drogas y el alcohol para el organismo.

  62. Se estima que el 50% de los hombres de 40 a 70 años experimentan algún tipo de disfunción eréctil en algún momento u otro.

  63. They may do tests to determine if your symptoms are caused by an underlying condition. You should expect a physical exam where your doctor will listen to your heart and lungs, check your blood pressure, and examine your testicles and penis. Buy cialis online netherlands. They may also recommend a rectal exam to check your prostate. Additionally, you may need blood or urine tests to rule out other conditions. Your doctor may prescribe medication to help manage your symptoms of ED.

  64. El tratamiento con autoinyecciones en el cuerpo cavernoso se utiliza cuando los inhibidores de la fosfodiesterasa son ineficaces. Sin embargo, hay formas de acabar con este trastorno y mejorar la calidad de las relaciones sexuales. Los expertos piensan que factores psicológicos, tales como el estrés, la ansiedad, la culpa, la depresión, una baja autoestima y el miedo a no desempeñarse en el coito como se espera causan del 10 al 20 % de los casos de DE. Comprar Viagra generico em portugal. Es decir que no se logra una erección, se logra obtenerla pero no tiene la dureza suficiente para el coito; o en la tercera opción, se logra una erección pero no dura lo suficiente para tener sexo.

  65. disfuncion erectil y prostata. Una erección reflexiva se debe a la estimulación física, mientras que una erección psicógena se desencadena por imágenes visuales o mentales. disfuncion erectil y embarazo. Además de estas pruebas de laboratorio, su médico también puede pedirle que complete un autoinforme para evaluar su nivel de función sexual.

  66. The Tadalafil becomes attached to the PDE5. This means that blood is allowed to have increased circulation and a man who takes a Cialis will discover that there is plenty of blood to create an erection. The binding mechanism of action with Tadalafil is highly effective, working in approximately four out of five men with erectile dysfunction or impotence.

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