Meneguhkan Nalar Saintifik Peradaban Islam melalui Wahdat al-Wujud

BukuPakHusain

Judul Buku                 : Menggali Nalar Saintifik Peradaban Islam

Penulis                        : Husain Heriyanto

Penerbit                      : Mizan, Bandung

Tebal                           : xxxix + 392 halaman

Cetakan                      : I, Mei 2011

Harga                          : Rp 59.000

Peresensi  (dalam situs SOROT Parlemen) :  Wa Ode Zainab Zilullah Toresano

Sesuai judulnya, buku “Menggali Nalar Saintifik Peradaban Islam” yang ditulis Husain Heriyanto ini semakin memperdalam penalaran atas peradaban Islam yang pernah berjaya di masa silam. Bahkan tidak berlebihan bila dikatakan, dari “penggalian” penulisnya semakin menderaskan terpancarnya mata air ilmu pengetahuan sebagai salah satu elemen penting peradaban Islam. Dan karena derasnya mata air berbanding lurus dengan “kejernihan” air, maka objek kajian buku ini mampu memenuhi kedahagaan manusia modern yang hidup di tengah padang gersang materialisme.

Tentu saja kualitas kejernihan air yang disuguhkankan oleh penulis tidak bisa dilepaskan dari “alat” (“sarana”) yang digunakan dalam penggalian, selain “metode” penggaliannya. Dengan mengikuti saran Hassan Hanafi (pemikir asal Mesir, l. 1934), penulis menawarkan metodologi analisis terhadap realitas objektif dunia eksternal sebagaimana juga realitas internal umat Islam sebagai langkah awal untuk menentukan langkah-langkah pencerahan dan kebangkitan umat, di mana dalam hal itulah kita menghadapi dua keadaan yang perlu dicermati (hal. 9). Pertama, jika modernisme (Barat) ditandai dengan pemberhalaan kepada hal-hal yang terukur secara kuantitatif, bendawi, serba terkontrol dan mekanis, maka postmodernisme justru mengkhutbahkan hal-hal yang tak terukur (nihilisme), tak terkontrol (relativisme), serba-acak (chaos), dan tak beraturan. Sebagai akibatnya, optimisme Aufklarung (Pencerahan) pada abad ke-18 telah berubah menjadi pesimisme pada abad ke-21.

Kedua , keterbelakangan kaum Muslim di bidang sosial, ekonomi, politik, dan tradisi keilmuan — bahkan moral — mengakibatkan kegagapan dalam mengantisipasi tantangan serta perubahan zaman. Hal ini dapat terlihat pada kondisi sebagian kaum muda Muslim (hal. 10 dan 11): (1) Keterperangkapan dalam gagasan-gagasan kontradiktif antara rasionalisme dan humanisme modern di satu pihak, dan postmodernisme di pihak lain, yang menolak logika dan rasionalitas (yang juga dianggap memberi ruang bagi “iman” yang dipersepsikan di luar wilayah akal); (2) Ketidakpedulian terhadap perkembangan arus pemikiran akibat kebulatan cara pandang dan sikap tentang kurang urgennya “menggali” secara “kritis” gagasan atau isu-isu rasionalisme dan humanisme modern, liberalisme, pluralisme, serta feminisme dalam agama yang dipasok dari Barat dengan dukungan para komprador (calo)lokalnya; (3) Kebingungan dan berkembangnya sikap rendah diri (inferiority complex) menyusul meruyaknya wacana fundamentalisme (tepatnya: “radikalisme”) agama dan kekerasan setelah Barat ketakutan menghadapi respons ekstrim kaum radikal (Muslim); dan (4) Kelumpuhan budaya membaca seiring mewabahnya budaya nonton dengan hiruk pikuk teknologi audiovisual, TV, dan Internet yang telah melahirkan mentalitas pasif (menerima takdir tanpa penalaran ilahiah).

Merujuk pada spektrum pemikiran Hanafi, kini kita dipaksa menuruti berbagai skenario bahkan paham dari Barat (hal. 11); dan bahwa apa pun keadaan eksternal yang berkembang, dan juga (apa pun) pilihan sikap internal kita, umumnya — secara de facto — tidak keluar dari pilihan-pilihan yang disodorkan oleh Barat (hal. 10).

Meski, dalam ukuran tertentu, saya menyetujui keampuhan metodologi analisis model Hanafi, namun perlu kehati-hatian. Model Hanafi menempatkan analisis historis sebagai salah satu karakteristik utama metode ilmiahnya. Di sini, logika yang dikembangkan cenderung menempatkan kitab suci (Islam) di dalam sejarah, bukan di atas sejarah.

Hanafi benar ketika mengatakan, dalam gagasan “Kiri Islam” (al-Yasar al-Islami) -nya, “…….kaum Muslim masuk kembali dalam gerak sejarah setelah Revolusi Islam akbar di Iran pada permulaan abad ke-15 H”. Tetapi, ia abai, justru pemimpin spiritual Iran kini (Imam ‘Ali Khamenei), mengatakan: “…… di dalam keyakinan kita bahwa al-Qur’an dan Islam dijadikan sebagai dasar (atau tudung penaung) dari (“di atas”) revolusi dan pergerakan kita” (hal. 9).

Dengan juga diperkuat dalil naqli tentang konsistensi bangsa Persia (Iran) dalam mengawal terwujudnya Kejayaan Islam nanti (lihat Hadits Rasulullah Muhammad Saww., riwayat Bukhari, yang berkaitan dengan asbabunnuzul ayat 3 Surah al-Jumu’ah), bukankah eksistensi di alam mayapada ini ada yang bersifat “metahistoris”?

Namun, alih-alih memarginalkan rasionalitas, sifat metahistoris (dan juga karakter historis) yang saya maksud justru sangat mendukung pemanfaatan “sarana” ilmiah yang ditawarkan penulis dalam penggalian — sekaligus mewujudkan — peradaban Islam: rasional, filosofis, dan humanis (bersesuaian dengan fitrah manusia), hal. 8. Dan karena ini semua dalam rangka meneguhkan pemahaman Tauhid — yang memaknai alam semesta secara unipolar dan uniaksial, bahwa secara esensial alam semesta berasal dari Allah (inna lillah) dan juga kembali kepada Allah (inna ilaihi raji’un) — maka saya sarankan, ke depan, penulis perlu terus melakukan penggalian, sehingga kelak bukan saja mata air “Nalar Saintifik” yang kita dapat manfaatkan untuk mengatasi dahaga kita, tapi juga mata air berharga lainnya terutama “Nalar Holistik” yang pernah diperkenalkan oleh Ibn ‘Arabi (l. 1165 M) lewat Teori Teosofi Martabat Tujuh.

Dengan mengutip kata-kata Morris Berman, Haidar Bagir memberi “Pengantar” atas buku Husain Heriyanto, “Selama 99% sejarah umat manusia, metode perolehan ilmu pengetahuan yang dominan adalah metode holistik, yang mengintegrasikan (mereintegrasikan) yang intuitif dan mistis dengan yang rasional dan empiris; dan bukannya hanya aspek aksiologis (nilai baik-buruk, etis, dan estetika) ilmu pengetahuan” (hal. xxiv).

Bagi saya, nalar holistik itu bukan sekadar mereintegrasikan yang intuitif dan mistis dengan yang rasional dan empiris, tapi bahkan mem-baqa-kan segala eksistensi ke dalam martabat Tuhan yang lebih tinggi (“Martabat Ahadiyah”/“Martabat Tujuh” atau “Martabat Ketunggalan/Keesaan”, yakni Ke-”satu”-an yang tak lagi terbagi-bagi, melainkan simple atau basith).

Dengan begitu, nalar holistik atau kosmologi (al ilm al ladunni), seperti yang dipersepsikan oleh Prof Oesman Bakr (“Tauhid dan Sains”— 2010) tidak turun peringkat dari ilmu tentang pengenalan diri sejati (Ilmu Tauhid menurut perspektif tasawuf atau irfan) seperti yang diungkapkan oleh Imam ‘Ali k.w. dan dirujuk oleh Ibn ‘Arabi — menjadi sekadar sekategori “ilmu numerologi” atau “ilmu perhitungan alfabet” (Kriptografi), meski yang disebutkan terakhir ini juga pernah diajarkan oleh beliau (Imam ‘Ali), yang dalam tradisi mistik Islam dikenal sebagai Al-kitabah As-sirriyah (Tulisan Rahasia).

       ***

AGAKNYA, dengan perkembangan sains Barat, khususnya fisika kuantum — seperti antara lain tercermin dari pemikiran David Bohm — semakin disadari tentang keterpautan antara aspek immateri dan yang material dalam gerak menuju “Singularitas” (“Ke-satu-an” atau “Wahdat al-Wujud”); dan — untuk konteks Indonesia — bukankah itu akan sangat membantu dalam pembentukan karakter bangsa (nation and character building), khususnya untuk mengkonkretkan pengamalan sila Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa dalam Pancasila?

Tentu saja perkembangan sains tersebut perlu dijadikan media berkaca diri bagi para pengusung rasionalitas minimalis dan postmodernisme, bahwa justru para saintis Barat sendiri yang mengumandangkan pentingnya peneguhan logika dan rasionalitas — on the right track — dalam rangka menggapai “iman”.

Dari sini saya berimajinasi, kalau saja penulis menyuguhkan tarikan benang merah (resultante) antara ilmu-ilmu pendukung peradaban Islam yang ia maksudkan dengan sains Barat ala Prof Bohm, pastilah akan semakin melegakan lagi banyak tenggorokan yang dahaga.

***

DARI segi basis rasionalitas dan filosofis — dalam rangka meneguhkan peradaban Islam yang Tauhidi — buku ini sangat dalam, luas, dan tinggi bahasannya, dan pasti melengkapi buku-buku sejenis seperti yang ditulis oleh Prof Dr Mulyadi Kartanegara (Reaktualisasi Tradisi Ilmiah Islam) dan Oesman Bakr.

Nilai strategisbuku ini adalah kecanggihan penulisnya dalam membuat peta peradaban Islam, khususnya di bidang sains, masa silam mulai dari matematika hingga kedokteran (Bagian Ketiga). Peta demikian dapat memandu kita mengembangkan jenis-jenis sains tersebut sehingga rekonstruksi dan pengembangan peradaban Islam kedepan tidak salah arah dan membuang energi (waste of resources).

Dukungan tinjauan filosofis atas masing-masing jenis sains tersebut (Bagian Keempat), berikut studi filsafatnya (“Lampiran” Bagian Keempat atau Bagian Terakhir) beserta Khazanah Islam (Bagian Kesatu), dan juga pengetahuan perihal Pilar-Pilar Peradaban Islam (Bagian Kedua), semakin meneguhkan keabsahan penilaian tadi. Sebagai perbandingan, buku sejenis: “Western Civilisation Through Muslim Eyes” (1977) yang ditulis Sayid Mujtaba Rukni Musawi Lari, samasekali tidak menyinggung landasan filosofis termaksud.

***

SELEBIHNYA, penulisan buku ini mungkin perlu perbaikan dari segi EYD (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan) dan pemilihan “kata”. Pada hal. 74, misalnya, terjemahan enrichment akan lebih baik ditulis “pengayaan” ketimbang “pengkayaan”. Di hal. 71, ucapan Sayyidina ‘Ali k.w.:”Harta itu berkurang jika engkau beri, …”, lebih baik ditulis, “Harta itu berkurang jika engkau dermakan, …”.

Akhirnya, tanpa bermaksud berfoya-foya dengan truth claim, menarik kita simak pernyataan Marshall G.S. Hodgson, “Seseorang tidak bisa memahami sejarah peradaban dunia, terutama sejarah peradaban modern, jika tidak memahami sejarah peradaban Islam” (hal. 73). Maka, tidak berlebihan bila saya sarankan agar Anda perlu segera bergegas membaca karya pemikir muda Indonesia ini.[ ]

_____________________________________________________________________

 Saat  ini (Januari 2015) peresensi adalah mahasiswi Pasca Sarjana (filsafat Islam) ICAS Paramadina, Jakarta (cabang dari ICAS London). Pernah mengikuti serangkaian kuliah  Prof Nidhal Guessoum yang diselenggarakan di Paris dan Kuala Lumpur.  Sejak awal 2015 berbagi mengabdikan diri sebagai Wakil Pemimpin Redaksi www.sorotparlemen.com.  Resensi buku ini dibuat oleh peresensi atas permintaan  penulis buku, Dr. Husain Heriyanto (yang juga adalah pengajar di Universitas Indonesia dan Sekolah Tinggi Filsafat Islam SADRA / STFI Sadra).

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