Politik Uang dalam Pemilu 2014

Oleh BUTONet 2 : Wa Ode Zainab Zilullah Toresano

PolitikUangBUTONet 2 Dalam pelaksanaan Pemilihan Umum 2014 yang baru saja usai, sebagian masyarakat tidak malu lagi meminta uang dari para calon anggota legislatif (caleg). Tentu saja kondisi yang semakin mengkhawatirkan itu tidak bisa lagi dianggap remeh karena dapat menghancurkan nilai-nilai demokrasi.

Sementara itu, untuk mendapatkan suara lebih banyak daripada calon anggota legislatif (caleg) lain dalam satu partai politik (parpol), caleg melakukan berbagai cara, termasuk politik uang. Sebab dalam sistem pemilihan proporsional dengan daftar terbuka, seperti yang berlaku dalam Pemilihan Umum (Pemilu) 2014 ini, caleg bisa mendapatkan kursi jika suara yang diraih lebih banyak daripada caleg lain yang berasal dari parpol yang sama.

Kondisi demikian, antara lain, turut membuka peluang bagi para pemilih untuk menjual suara kepada para caleg.  Berbagai media massa memberitakan praktik politik uang yang terjadi di hampir setiap provinsi yang (diduga) dilakukan para caleg  — dan tim sukses mereka — dari berbagai parpol;  salah satunya adalah yang diungkapkan Budi Haryanto  (Staf Divisi Pengawasan Panwaslu Kabupaten Gunungkidul, Provinsi DI Yogyakarta) bahwa pada hariSelasa, 15 April 2014, Panwaslu Gunung Kidul mengirimkan  tim ke Surabaya guna mengklarifikasi soal uang  [Rp 500 juta  berupa pecahan Rp 5.000 dan 10.000, yang disertai berkas formulir serta atribut calon anggota DPR (Ahmad Hanafi Rais, putera Pendiri PAN) dan DPRD DIY (Arief Setiadi) dari Partai Amanat Nasional / PAN] dari Pusdemham (Pusat Demokrasi dan Hak Asasi Manusia) — selaku pihak yang disebut sebagai pemilik uang — dan juga untuk melacak kebenaran informasi ihwal asal-muasal uang dan peruntukannya yang sempat  “diduga kuat” sebagai amunisi serangan fajar ketika pelaksanaaan Pemilu.

Dari berkas kasus yang diberikan Kepolisian, Panwaslu sempat terperanjat karena ditemukan bukti nota penerimaan uang yang dibawa dengan dua karung besar hanya berupa sobekan kertas dengan tulisan balpoin. Sangat tidak profesional sekali, hanya seperti catatan belanja.

Dalam sobekan kertas berukuran separuh kertas kuarto itu juga tidak dicantumkan identitas pengirim dan penerima, tetapi hanya disebutkan besar nominalnya, serta sebuah kontak telepon penerima dan sebuah pin BlackBerry. (TEMPO.COYogyakarta, Selasa, 15/4/2014)

***

AGAKNYA, kesimpulan bahwa maraknya politik uang dalam Pemilu 2014 adalah akibat kesalahan sistem, sejalan dengan apa yang diungkapkan Eva Kusuma Sundari  [caleg Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (PDI-P) dari Dapil Jawa Timur VI], bahwa sistem pemilihan proporsional terbuka — seperti yang berlaku saat ini — sebagai penyebab maraknya politik uang, dan caleg berlomba-lomba melakukan segala macam cara, termasuk politik uang, demi mendapatkan suara terbanyak. Bahkan pada status  Blackberry Messenger-nya, ia menulis: “Pemenang Pileg adalah Uang” (Kompas, 15/4/2014).

Kesalahan sistemik tersebut dipertegas oleh Slamet Effendy Yusuf  [mantan anggota Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR)] dan AAGN Ari Dwipayana (pengajar Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik UGM, Yogyakarta).

“Miris rasanya menyaksikan masyarakat menjadikan proses pemilu sebagai pasar.  Ada tawar-menawar. Masyarakat malah ingin pemilu sering berlangsung. Harus kita lihat kembali sistem itu. Partai juga harus melihat kembali sistem itu apakah sudah benar,” demikian Slamet Effendi Yusuf (Kompas, 15/4/2014).

Senada dengan Slamet, Dwipayana menyatakan bahwa sistem “tarung bebas” (proporsional terbuka)  membuat caleg cenderung melakukan segalanya untuk mendapatkan suara. Untuk meminimalkan hal itu, peranan caleg dalam kampanye dikurangi. Kampanye harus lebih dikoordinasi oleh partai politik sehingga persaingan tidak sehat  antar caleg bisa dikurangi  (Kompas, 16/4/2014).

***

TENTU saja tidak semua orang sepakat dengan pandangan bahwa kesalahan sistemik sebagai pendorong maraknya praktik politik uang.

“Ketidaktegasan penyelenggara Pemilu sebagai penyebab maraknya praktik politik uang. Selama ini tidak ada sanksi tegas yang diberikan penyelenggara Pemilu kepada pihak-pihak yang melakukan politik uang. Seharusnya penyelenggara, baik KPU (Komisi Pemilihan Umum) maupun Bawaslu (Badan Pengawas Pemilu), bertindak tegas terhadap temuan politik uang di lapangan,”  demikian Ferry Mursyidan Baldan, Ketua Badan Pemenangan Pemilu Partai Nasdem (Kompas, 16/4/2014). [**]

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