Rizal Ramli Benahi Korupsi Bongkar Muat di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok

(Olahan dari “Bincang Pagi  Metro TV”, Selasa, 1/9/2015)

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JAKARTA, www.sorotparlemen.com — Kementerian Koordinator Kemaritiman dan Sumber Daya  akan memangkas jumlah perizinan/rekomendasi di pelabuhan (laut) hingga tinggal sepertiga dari 124 — dari 20 (atau 18) kementerian dan lembaga — yang ada selama ini.  Pemangkasan dilakukan untuk mempercepat waktu bongkar muat barang/peti kemas  (dwelling time) — hingga target 2-2,5 hari (dari 5,5 hari) — dan meningkatkan daya saing logistik, terlebih lagi pada Desember nanti kita sudah memasuki ASEAN Community.

Seusai menerima Kepala Polri Jenderal (Pol) Badrodin Haiti di Jakarta (Senin, 31/8) — untuk membicarakan permintaan kepada Polri agar mencari para mafia yang membuat proses bongkar muat menjadi mahal — Menteri Koordinator Kemaritiman dan Sumber Daya (Menko KSD) Rizal Ramli mengatan, perizinan yang banyak itu tidak masuk akal sehingga akan dipotong hingga sepertiganya saja. Semua perizinan ini, lanjut Rizal, harus dievaluasi dan dipilih yang penting, tidak bisa lagi membuat sulit perizinan; dan kalau dulu birokrasi sengaja mempersulit agar mendapatkan pendapatan, sekarang tidak boleh lagi (Kompas, 1/9).

Bila gebrakan Rizal berhasil akan dirasakan dampak signifikan, dan sarang mafia-mafia pelabuhan yang sudah lama bercokol akan bisa terobrak-abrik.

***

KENDATI Rizal menunjukkan keseriusannya — dalam membenahi kekusutan di pelabuhan — dengan membentuk Tim Satuan Tugas Pembenahan Waktu Bongkar Muat (yang diberi waktu 1 bulan untuk membenahi bongkar muat), namun banyak pihak  meragukan keberhasilannya karena  gebrakan tersebut  belum dilengkapi mandat tertulis; dan juga meng-“kepret” (sebuah istilah yang digunakan Rizal untuk mengekspresikan kegeramannya atas ulah mafia pelabuhan) para mafia tidak perlu banyak cakap, melainkan harus diam-diam karena di sana yang dibutuhkan adalah adu pintar (kelicikan). Terlebih lagi — menurut Mantan Menteri Keuangan era Orde Baru Fuad Bawazier (dalam diskusi bertema “Mafia Pelabuhan Vs Poros Maritim” pada Ahad, 30/8) —- mafia itu jumlahnya banyak dan beragam, mulai dari yang punya tato, pakai dasi, hingga yang berseragam dinas.

***

MENURUT  Staf Menko KSD Agung Kriswandono — dalam “Bincang Pagi Metro TV” pada Selasa (1/9) kemarin — Rizal akan melakukan lima langkah [Kompas (26/8) menulis tujuh langkah] untuk mengurangi dwelling time, di mana dua di antaranya adalah:  Pertama, mengevaluasi dan membenahi sistem perizinan, di mana akan diberlakukan “single submition”, sehingga semua data yang masuk dari berbagai instansi cukup dikelola melalui satu tempat saja, misal dengan menggunakan laptop.

Kedua, menyelenggarakan pengangkutan barang/peti kemas dengan kereta api. Sejak dulu hal ini sudah disiapkan, tetapi tidak mendapatkan respons dari PT Pelindo (pihak pelabuhan), padahal infrastruktur untuk rel kereta sudah ada.

Agung menambahkan, ada sekitar 10 ribu  item barang yang diproses di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok, 51 persen terkena larangan pembatasan. Maka ini harus dibenahi (dengan ilmu “kepret”-nya Rizal). “Perizinan akan diprioritaskan, dan hal itu berkaitan dengan banyak instansi, sehingga perlu koordinasi. Ditargetkan dalam 1,5 bulan sudah harus bisa dikoordinasikan beragam institusi, yang dimulai dari pembenahan internal  masing-masing instansi,” kata Agung.

Dalam hubungan itu, masih kata Agung, pemerintah sudah menetapkan kebijakan INSW (National Single Window), sehingga semuanya harus masuk dalam INSW ini. Instansi-instansi tersebut  harus  ikut dalam sistem ICT (Information and Communications Technology) yang dibangun, tidak boleh lagi menggunakan cara/proses manual. Kalau 20 (atau 18) instansi itu diperintahkan Presiden  berada dalam satu sistem, maka pembenahan cepat sekali  bisa  terwujud.

Meresponi Agung, pengamat kebijakan publik Agus Pambagyo — yang juga ikut dalam “Bincang Pagi Metro TV” yang dipandu Zilvia Iskandar itu — mengatakan, saya setuju semuanya pakai ICT untuk mengatasi adanya 18 (20) komando pengelolaan dwelling time; terlebih lagi perizinan di negeri ini sudah menjadi komoditas.

“(Tetapi) keberhasilan program itu bergantung pada orang nomor satu, yakni yang memimpin masing-masing  institusi termaksud dan juga Presiden. Maka, Presiden harus tegas. Dia harus perintahkan Kapolri, kalau tidak bisa membenahi, ganti saja Kapolrinya,” tandas Pambagyo.

***

DALAM  kesempatan yag sama Ketua Apindo (Asosiasi Pengusaha Indonesia) Anton Supit  memaparkan, pada zaman Pak Harto (Presiden Soeharto) dulu sudah pernah dilakukan pembenahan di Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok, tetapi  susah. “(Sehingga) apakah ada niat yang sungguh-sungguh  pembenahannya? Mari kita tunggu,” ujar Supit.

Supit mendukung pembenahan tersebut, apalagi pelabuhan memang sangat vital. Tetapi,  persoalan rumitnya perizinan, lanjut Supit, bukan hanya di Tanjung Priok, melainkan juga terjadi  di mana-mana. Hal ini diakui pula oleh Pambagyo. “Suap bukan terjadi di pelabuhan saja. Di luar juga banyak (suap),” tandas Pambagyo.

Menurut dia (Supit), akibat urusan berbelit (dan juga proses produksi yang lamban), bisa saja banyak pabrik akan direlokasi  ke negara-negara lain, misalnya ke Vietnam (dan keadaan itu  tentu saja akan menciptakan pengangguran massal).

Dalam kaitan ini, kata Supit, tidak fair kalau importir dituding menumpuk barang di pelabuhan dengan memanfaatkan peluang biaya atau sewa gudang yang murah, karena pengusaha membeli barang untuk keperluan produksi; sehingga tidak mungkin barang mereka mau ditumpuk di pelabuhan saja.

Dari semua ketimpangan tersebut, bagi Supit, hal yang paling mendasar adalah pembenahan sistem, bukan sekadar penindakan. “Maka, kita harus rubah mekanisme yang berjalan selama ini  menjadi (sistem)  National Single Window/INSW. Termasuk dalam sistem ini adalah dibentuknya  mekanisme bongkar muat peti kemas yang terdiri dari: pre-clearance (mulai dari kapal sandar hingga pengurusan dokumen Pabean), custom clearance [yang terdiri dari pemeriksaan barang dan izin instansi (jika diperlukan) hingga persetujuan pengeluaran barang], dan post clearance  (yang terdiri dari administrasi pengeluaran barang di terminal kontainer hingga pengeluaran fisik barang dari pelabuhan) melalui  perizinan  satu atap, bukan lagi berurusan dengan 18  (20)  instansi,” ujar Supit.

Ia menambahkan, Presiden harus menginstruksikan semua instansi untuk melakukan pembenahan masing-masing, jangan hanya dilaksanakan satu instansi saja, misalnya Pelindo, sebab ia (Pelindo), kan, hanya sekadar  pengelola, sementara  yang  berhak mengeluarkan barang adalah Bea Cukai.

***

SEAKAN memperkuat pendapat Supit, Pambagyo menambahkan, by law harus ada otoritas pelabuhan, dan otoritas tersebut  harus bekerja sama dengan tim yang dibentuk oleh Menko KSD. “Pemerintah harus mengeluarkan Undang-Undang Otoritas Pelabuhan, di mana di situ antara lain diatur bahwa 18  (20) instansi harus dikoordinasikan oleh Otoritas Pelabuhan (Port  Authority). Kemudian mengenai tim termaksud, sayang sekali Rizal sudah terlebih dahulu mengumumkan bahwa tim itu berada di bawah koordinasinya, yang di dalamnya antara lain ada Kepala Staf Angkatan Laut (KASAL) dan Kapolri; padahal hanya Panglima TNI yang boleh memerintahkan KASAL, bukan Menko KSD,” tegas Pambagyo.

Terlepas dari semua itu, bagi Pambagyo, di negeri ini, yang bisa membuktikan adanya penyimpangan hanya KPK (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi) dan Tuhan. “Kita ini mau bersihkan lantai, tetapi sapu kita kotor,” kata Pambagyo sambil tersenyum.

Kendati demikian, Agung berpendapat, karena 70 persen barang di Indonesia keluar-masuk melalui Tanjung Priok, sementara kondisi pengelolaannya demikian buruk, maka selama sistemnya  belum dibenahi, pengusaha akan terus menjadi korban (yang pada gilirannya akan menyengsarakan masyarakat luas).

Oleh karena itu, lanjut dia, kini yang diperlukan adalah adanya kemauan (willingness), dan hal itu bisa dipaksakan kepada instansi-ntansi termaksud. Mereka semua harus masuk dalam sistem INSW untuk menjadi ujung tombak pembenahan. “Soal kuota, misalnya, harus dicari tahu, kuota untuk (kepentingan) apa,” kata Agung. [**]

_____________________________

Wa Ode Zainab Zilullah Toresano  dan La Ode Zulfikar Toresano (www.sorotparlemen.com, Rabu, 2/9/2015).  Materi  tulisan di atas  diolah dari “Bincang Pagi Metro TV”  (Selasa, 1/9/2015)  bertajuk : “Korupsi Bongkar Muat Pelabuhan“.

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