Undang-Undang Keamanan Nasional dan Pemerintah Sebagai Sumber Ancaman bagi Keamanan Negara

“Pemerintah harus mampu memenuhi janjinya, terutama untuk menyejahterakan rakyat. Jika itu gagal, bukan tidak mungkin justru pemerintah yang menjadi sumber ancaman bagi keamanan negara,” demikian Rektor Universitas Gadjah Mada Sofian Effendi, seusai mengikuti pertemuan rektor universitas negeri dan swasta se-Indonesia dengan Menteri Pertahanan Juwono Sudarsono (Kompas, 21 / 2 / 2007).

Lebih lanjut Sofian menyatakan, kemiskinan, pengangguran, dan kesengsaraan rakyat berpotensi mengancam keamanan negara, terutama jika pemerintah tidak segera bisa mengatasi atau meyakinkan rakyat bahwa pemerintah selama ini sudah berbuat sesuatu. Kalau rakyat melihat pemerintah gagal membuktikan janjinya, itu dapat memicu kekecewaan dan kemarahan. Kondisi itu rentan dimanfaatkan berbagai kelompok, terutama yang beraliran ekstrim.

Selain itu, Sofian juga mengingatkan, tak hanya dipengaruhi untuk melakukan kekerasan, rakyat yang kecewa juga sangat rentan dimanfaatkan untuk menjatuhkan pemerintahan. “Indeks yang dipakai patokan di negara mana pun adalah tingkat kesengsaraan, yang terdiri dari kombinasi tingkat inflasi dan angka pengangguran. Kalau kita lihat, tingkat kesengsaraan di Indonesia kini mencapai 30 persen,” ujar Sofian.

Jika persentase itu terus naik sampai 45 persen, Sofian memastikan sulit meyakinkan rakyat bahwa pemerintah sudah berbuat sesuatu untuk mengatasi masalah itu. Ini diperburuk kemiskinan yang bertambah dan bencana yang silih berganti. “Kondisi seperti itu saya lihat justru menjadi ancaman bagi keselamatan negara selain ancaman yang bersifat fisik,” tambah Sofian.

***

Dengan pernyataan Sofian Effendi tersebut kita mau bertanya, dari segi realitas obyektif, mana yang potensinya lebih besar menimbulkan ancaman besar, obyek-obyek yang diatur (diwaspadai) dalam Rancangan Undang-Undang Keamanan Nasional (RUU Kamnas) ataukah ancaman yang ditimbulkan dari pihak pemerintah sendiri akibat ketidakmampuannya mengatasi pengangguran dan kemiskinan massal (struktural)?

Dalam konstitusi sudah diatur tentang tugas negara dalam mensejahterakan rakyat (lihat Pasal 33 dan 34 Undang-Undang Dasar 1945). Dan juga pemerintah telah membuat sejumlah undang-undang (UU), peraturan, ketetapan, dan instruksi, serta aneka program seperti revitalisasi pertanian; bahkan mengumbar janji hendak menerapkan kebijakan yang lebih tegas untuk menegakkan konstitusi dan UU. Nah, kalau semua itu tidak bisa dipenuhi, apa sanksinya? Apakah penyelenggara negara (pejabat publik) kebal hukum, memiliki imunitas, dan tidak memerlukan akuntabilitas atas pelaksanaan tugas-tugas dan kewajiban mereka?

Pemerintah bisa saja berdalih bahwa mereka bukan tidak mampu, tapi “belum” mampu memenuhi tanggung jawabnya (amanat konstitusi) karena adanya sejumlah kendala, misalnya akibat hambatan teknis atau faktor alam. Tapi, apakah perlu dibuat UU khusus yang mengatur mekanisme untuk menguji kebenaran setiap pembelaan diri (apologi) pemerintah?  Atau apakah itu perlu diatur dalam konstitusi, sehingga urgensi amandemen ke-5 UUD 1945 bukan saja timbul dari tuntutan tentang perlunya penguatan sistem parlemen dua kamar (dari  soft bicameralism  menjadi strong bicameralism) seperti yang gencar didesakkan oleh kalangan Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (DPD) saat ini? Ataukah apa pun kesalahan pemerintah — baik karena kelemahan (kesalahan) maupun faktor lain yang sulit dihindari —cukup diselesaikan melalui mekanisme pemilihan umum (Pemilu), sehingga kalau rakyat menganggap pemerintah tidak  capable (tidak  becus) mengurus negara, maka ekspresi maksimal kekecewaan rakyat cukup dengan tidak lagi memilih individu-individu (dalam pemerintahan) yang dianggap tidak bertanggung jawab dalam mengemban amanat menjalankan roda pemerintahan? Dengan begitu rakyat harus terus mempertebal rasa “sabar”.

Masalahnya, seandainya benar analogi kita bahwa kekeliruan pengendalian republik ini mirip dengan kesalahan seorang sopir yang membawa mobil (baca: “angkutan umum”) secara  ugal-ugalan (ceroboh) atau belum memenuhi syarat untuk menyopir di jalan raya, apakah para penumpang mobil (baca: “rakyat”) itu cukup mempertebal rasa sabar mereka dan terus berdoa moga-moga bisa tiba di terminal tujuan (baca: “Pemilu”) meski sudah dalam kondisi kekhawatiran yang memuncak (sempoyongan) dan traumatik, bahkan jantungnya terasa mau  lepas (copot)? Dan apakah kesabaran seperti itu perlu dipupuk mengingat ada anjuran dari salah seorang penumpang mobil (baca: “Ustadz selebriti”) yang duduk manis di dekat sopir, misalnya, bahwa “kesabaran adalah sebagian dari iman” (assabr nisful îman) atau “sesungguhnya Tuhan beserta orang-orang yang sabar”  (innallaha ma’asshâbirin)?

Kita memang sering menyandera diri dengan pilihan-pilihan kita. Dan  konyol-nya, pilihan-pilihan tersebut — agar kelihatanshahih alias “mutawattir” — sering diberi justifikasi dengan label-label keagamaan. Dan kalau begitu cara kita beragama, tidak salah apa yang dipropagandakan Karl Marx bahwa “Agama adalah candu masyarakat!” (bahkan sudah menjadi semacam narkoba sosial). [**]

_______________________

La Ode Zulfikar Toresano (Aba Zul) adalah Koordinator Umum Forum Studi Politik dan Teknologi Nasional  (Forum SPTN) dan sejak Maret 2014 bekerja sebagai Pemimpin Redaksi  BUTONet 2.

Artikel ini pernah dimuat dalam Jurnal DPD Plus DIGITAL (yakni sebuah media digital yang dikelola oleh Forum SPTN), kemudian juga dalam http: //forumsptn-indo-military-watch.blogspot.com pada Januari 2007

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